protestation return 1641

Starting in 1517, the Protestant Reformation of Martin Luther began the process of ending the Catholic hegemony in Western faith and its political consequences. Middlesex Protestation Returns 1641-42 Discover your early English ancestor on the Protestation Returns of 1641-1642. 0000002177 00000 n In July 1641, a resolution of Parliament requested all males over 18 years to take an oath of allegiance in support of the Crown, Parliament and the Protestant religion, to oppose the 'plots and conspiracies of priests and Jesuits' that were allegedly subverting the kingdom. [13] However, it was not an effective way of distinguishing Catholics, as some of them signed the oath with reservations to their faith, while other Protestants refused to sign it at all. Protestation Returns in Cornwall (1641) Home Page Family History Social/Political Events Background to the Protestation Returns Ball Family Start 20 June 2012. Lenthall's assumption was that those that refused to do so would be Catholics and thus unfit to occupy an office in the Church or State of England, as well as to facilitate identifying potential backers of King Charles I across England. [23], https://www.cornwall-opc-database.org/extra-searches/protestation-returns/protestation-oath-of-1641/, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Protestation_of_1641&oldid=947619567, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. This is a disappointment. Lists of those taking the oath in each parish were sent to Parliament in 1642. 0000001217 00000 n Purkiss, Diane, The English Civil War: A People's History, London: Harper Perennial, 2007. Those that were not willing to sign it were also listed under it as refusing to pledge its oath. 0000000951 00000 n Strafford had successfully controlled the Irish revolt by convincing the Catholic gentry to pay taxes in exchange of future religious benefits, thus increasing the revenue of Charles I and pacifying Ireland. the changes made by Archbishop Laud), and to defend the king's person, the powers of … Sloat 1973 Page Parish Name 283 Kingswear, Robert Wheaton 290 Mary Church, Edward Wheaton 300 North Bovey, William Wheaton 315 Heavitree, Roger Wheaton 329 St. Mary Steps, Exeter, Gilbert Wheaton 338 Trinity Exeter, William Wheaton 364 Topsham, John Wheaton 428 Chawleigh, Giles Wheaten 429 Coldridge,… On the other, the Parliamentarians or Roundheads were Puritans that wanted to defend what they thought was the traditional form of Church and State that had been unjustly altered by Charles due to ill advice during his 11 years of personal rule. T he English Revolution (1640-60) began in November 1640 when Charles 1st. Carlton, Charles, Archbishop William Laud, London: Routledge and Keagan Paul, 1987. At the end of February or the beginning of March 1641 incumbents read out the Protestation in the parish churches. T he Commons ordered the printing of the protestation and preamble on the 5th May 1641 and this was distributed by the Members to their counties. Gardiner, Samuel Rawson, History of England from the Accession of James I to the Outbreak of the Civil war 1603–1642, Vol.9 1883. [15], Following the failure of the 1641 Protestation, the Long Parliament tried two more times to organize an oath of allegiance to King Charles and the Church of England, but they saw the same fate as its predecessor. The Protestation also fits in the timeline of the English Civil Wars, which shook the realm and altered its relationships. By order of the House of Commons, all adult men were asked to swear an oath of allegiance to the Protestant religion in 1642. Those that were not willing to sign it were also listed under it as refusing to pledge its oath. [22] On one side, the Cavaliers or Loyalists were followers of the Church of England that wanted to maintain the traditional forms of government in Church and State based on the monarch. Vallance,E., Revolutionary England and the National Covenant: State Oaths, Protestantism, and the Political Nation, 1553–1682. Taken in 1641-1642, these Protestation Returns are the nearest there is (for the next two hundred years) to a widespread census of adult males. Extracted from Devon Protestation Returns 1641 by A.J. Howard T.L. It happened not once, but three times until the civil wars broke out. The Protestation of 1641 was an attempt to avert the English Civil War. %%EOF this present Protestation contained: and further, that I . By the end of 1640, King Charles I had become very unpopular. It was written on 3 May 1641 and passed in Parliament, soon all members of the House of Commons had swore under it and on the following day, so did the members of the House of Lords. 0000000784 00000 n May of 1641 it was agreed and ordered that every Member of the House of Commons and the House of Lords should make a protestation (declaration of loyalty) to the crown. Signing them was a necessity in order to hold public office. 0000000576 00000 n this present Protestation contained: and further, that I . Local Population Studies, 60. Reacting to scares and anxiety that the Protestant Reformation was in danger of being replaced, especially due to the Catholic influence around King Charles I, a ten-man committee of the House of Commons was selected to draft a national declaration. 0000001450 00000 n In 1641 a resolution of Parliament requested all males aged over 18 to take an oath in support of the Crown, Parliament and the Protestant religion, to oppose the “plots and conspiracies of priests and Jesuits” that were allegedly subverting the kingdom. [14] The lists were returned to Parliament later in 1642, being known the Protestation Returns. Kingdoms of England, Scotland, and Ireland: and . Although Parliament only asked for the names of men aged over 18, in … However, these lists have been useful to historians as a partial census of population, a guideline to estimate it, an important tool for genealogists in search of ancestors from before the English Civil Wars, and for academics interested in last name distributions before the civil wars erupted. THE PROTESTATION RETURN OF 1641/2 . The returns relate to the years 1641- 42, around the start of the Civil War.The Protestation was an Oath of loyalty to Parliament and to the King, and was originally drawn up and taken by the members of the House of Commons on 3rd of May 1641, the following day the … preserve the Union and Peace betwixt the Three . An article by Tony Hadland for Catholic Ancestor, February 1997 On the 3rd of May 1641, fifteen months before the outbreak of the Civil War, the House of Commons drew up a Protestation Oath with six stated objectives: To defend "the true Reformed Protestant Religion, expressed in the doctrine of the Church of England, against… [20] Just a few days afterwards, Charles I fled London for the country for his safety, while cities and towns declared itself for one of the factions, although most of England remained neutral. In the succession of the trial of Charles I, he was executed for treason in 1649 and the kingship was replaced with Oliver Cromwell's Commonwealth of England. neither for Hope, Fear nor other Respect, shall . Its intent was to prevent the conflicts between both factions from turning into a costly civil war.[9]. In July 1641 Parliament passed a bill on 3 May requiring those over the age of 18 to sign the Protestation, an oath of allegiance to King Charles I and the Church of England, as a way to reduce the tensions across the realm. H��VMo�F���$2M��*� ��6vc�p���"W��䮺KZQ~}�,I}�VۓIkw��{�fx~O�ߟ��n�(�.�f� iىHQ����xv�˸s�!E/:a������5�R�( (Note: Ornate letters and unusual spellings introduce uncertainties.) As conflicts escalated, both sides suspected of each other. All males over the age of 18 were required to sign a declaration (or oath) "to live and die for the true Protestant religion, the liberty and rights of subjects and the priviliges of Parliament". O ne of the purposes of the protestation was to identify Roman Catholics. Howard T.L. Neither party was able to develop the conflicts further at this point, as the Irish, fearing the imposition of Protestantism in their Catholic land rebelled and that country descended into chaos. Religiously, the 16th and 17th centuries were a period of vast changes and religious conflicts. Protestation Returns 1641-42 for Kingston Bagpuize 1641 oath of allegiance to Crown, Parliament and the Protestant religion. 0000004644 00000 n [2] Throughout the buildup to the English Civil Wars, discontentment among Protestants for the measures of the Archbishop of Canterbury William Laud that intended to transform the Church of England into a more ceremonial one, according to the theology of Arminianism, led to conflicts between the Church of England and Puritans.[3]. The House of Commons had passed the bill on the 21st of April and the House of Lords gave it a second reading on the 27th April. Charles I initially refused to sign it, and without his signature Strafford would be safe. Rather than being an instrument against internal conflicts, it fed on them when Speaker Lenthall send the additional letter demanding that all men above 18 years old sign the oath as a response to Charles I's attempt to arrest the Five Members of Parliament. Not affected by this, John Pym was able to obtain notes from the King's Privy Council where Strafford claimed that Charles I was absolved from the rules of government because he had done his duty and his subject failed on theirs, thus Charles was allowed to use his army that was in Ireland to suppress all revolts against him. The names of those that have taken the Protestation within the Parrish of Yapton, by the Minister, Churchwardens and Overseers of the Parrish aforesaid. Sherwood, Roy Edward, Oliver Cromwell: King In All But Name, 1653–1658, New York: St Martin's Press, 1997. endstream endobj 36 0 obj<>/Metadata 8 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/Pages 7 0 R/PageLayout/OneColumn/StructTreeRoot 10 0 R/Type/Catalog/Lang(EN-GB)/LastModified(D:20070222194908)/PageLabels 5 0 R>> endobj 37 0 obj<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 38 0 obj<> endobj 39 0 obj<> endobj 40 0 obj<> endobj 41 0 obj<> endobj 42 0 obj<> endobj 43 0 obj<> endobj 44 0 obj<>stream The Protestation Returns of 1641/2 and the Hearth Tax records which start in 1662 are two of the most important sources to genealogists pursuing their enquiries into the 17th century, especially as many of the parish records are incomplete during the period of upheaval which followed the outbreak of the English Civil War. In 1642 Parliament ordered all males in England and Wales over the age of 18 to take an oath “ to live and die for the true Protestant religion, the liberties and rights of subjects, and the privilege of Parliament”.. One of the purposes of the protestation was to identify Roman Catholics.. It was agreed and ordered on the 3rd May 1641, that every Member of the House of Commons should make a protestation (declaration of loyalty), which the House of Lords also agreed to the following day. A part from its implications in population census and local historiography, it provides an understanding of how people during the decade of 1640 attempted to avoid a potentially costly and bloody conflict. Coward, Barry, The Stuart Age, London: Longman, 1994. Their names were duly inscribed in a list in each parish, and the list sent back to Parliament. On 22 August 1642, Charles I raised his Royal Standard and a war that for long had been looming started as last. The other, Elezein, is unknown. summoned Parliament to help him out of a financial crisis. <]>> The Long Parliament, however, would turn out to be more hostile against Charles I's interests than the Short Parliament had been. Still in May 1641, the Long Parliament passed the Triennial Acts, demanding that Parliament meet at least at every three years, even without a Royal summons. From this, stemmed the first oath of allegiance to King Charles I and to the Protestant Reformation in the Church of England. Part I, Appendix 3. Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts, Fifth Report of The Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts. %PDF-1.4 %���� At this time, however, Parliament was still focusing its efforts against bad counselors that were blamed for Charles I's failures, and not the King himself. "The Protestation Oath of 1641". The Long Parliament then turned its focus to Thomas Wentworth, the Earl of Strafford, and accused him of treason and other minor crimes. ��O�Ŗ�A0��c�. Learn if your ancestor took the oath of allegiance to the Protestant religion as well as where your ancestor lived. Carlton, Charles, Charles I: The Personal Monarch, Great Britain: Routledge, 1995. relinquish this Promise, Vow and Protestation." xref It began in May 1641 with the intention of getting all Englishmen above the age of 18 to swear a vow to defend King Charles I and the Church of England. "The Trial of Charles I". From then on, Parliament was split into two factions - Royalists (Cavaliers) who supported the King and Parliamentarians (Roundheads) who … A full list of the 85 parishes that have been transcribed into EXCEL Format is given below the following transcription from Little Petherick. The Protestation was printed and then distributed by the Members to their counties. Protestation Return, 1642 House of Lords Record Office. However, on 10 May, fearing the safety of his family, Charles I signed it and Strafford was decapitated two days later.[17]. On the 6th May 1641 a Bill was introduced in the House of Commons imposing the signing of the Protestation on all Englishmen of 18 years and above. on this page. Then, letters were sent from the speaker of the House of Commons to sheriffs of each Parish communicating them about the decision and for them to also swear into it, as well as the Judges of Peace. Parliament forced him to make changes in the Constitution which gave them a bigger say in how the country was governed. shall, in all just and honourable ways, endeavour to . Protestation Returns House of Lords Records . All who refused to sign were deemed unfit to hold office in Church or Commonwealth. Extracted from Devon Protestation Returns 1641 by A.J. In the seventeenth century the year began on 25 March so ‘6 th March 1641′ is towards the end of 1641 and is 6 March 1642 in our calendar. What followed was 9 years of civil wars between 1642 and 1651, the first one ending when Charles I was placed under Parliament custody and put to trial. Sloat 1973 Page Parish Name 283 Kingswear, Robert Wheaton 290 Mary Church, Edward Wheaton 300 North Bovey, William Wheaton 315 Heavitree, Roger Wheaton 329 St. Mary Steps, Exeter, Gilbert Wheaton 338 Trinity Exeter, William Wheaton 364 Topsham, John Wheaton 428 Chawleigh, Giles Wheaten 429 Coldridge,… Wedgwood, C. V., The King's War: 1641–1647, London: Fontana, 1970. 0000003218 00000 n In 1641, amid fears of the Protestant Reformation being in danger of being undone, alleged Papist plots, and Catholic influence under the court of Charles I, the House of Commons during the Long Parliament was ordered by royal decree to prepare a national declaration to help reduce the tensions across England on the matter. The English Revolution (1640-60) began in November 1640 when Charles 1st. The Return includes the names of two Bulleids: John, who is probably the John Bulleid who married Armynell Jeffery in Winkleigh in 1606 and died there if 1645. PROTESTATION RETURN 1641/2 I n 1642 Parliament ordered all males in England and Wales over the age of 18 to take an oath “ to live and die for the true Protestant religion, the liberties and rights of subjects, and the privilege of Parliament”. This page was last edited on 27 March 2020, at 12:57. Parliament forced him to make changes in the Constitution which gave them a bigger say in how the country was governed. Protestation Returns St Keverne Cornwall 1641 Press Ctrl+F to Find ? Had it been successful as an oath of allegiance, its two successors, the Vow and Covenant and the Solemn League and Covenant, would not have been necessary. For an explanation of the background please read the Protestation Oath; The source for this transcription is "Cornwall Protestation Returns 1641" from a transcript (circa 1914) by Reginald Morshead Glencross, additional material by H L Douch, edited and published by T L Stoate 1974; The wildcard (%) is applied by default to the right hand side of some search terms. [18] Further, it prohibited any source of increased revenue for the Crown without Parliament consent, such as Charles I's Ship Tax. The Protestation Returns owe their existence to the unrest which prevailed in Parliament during the passage of the bill for the Attainder of the Earl of Strafford in 1641. x�b```�� 2džA���b,@��A%��P��9�H5�6�Ő 30�0�3Z�,��!�@|�f��n-� `)Vf�o@� �-����YIH3���d`6[e�0 �� On the 3rd of May 1641, fifteen months before the outbreak of the Civil War, the House of Commons drew up a Protestation Oath with six stated objectives: To defend “the true Reformed Protestant Religion, expressed in the doctrine of the Church of … In political terms, Charles was forced to end his Personal Rule and call Parliament to increase taxes so he could raise an army to put them revolts in Scotland and Ireland down. The Protestation Return of 1641/2. 2005. Given the outcome of the conflicts between Charles I and Parliament, it is clear in hindsight that the Protestation failed and was always bound to do so, but for people at the time under the constraints that they were under and being ignorant of the future, the Protestation was a valid try at avoiding a costly civil war. 0000003142 00000 n Transcribed from original returns on microfilm by Tony Higgins. Use thisguide if you can trace your ancestors back to 1642, and you know which countryand parish they live in. County map CAMBRIDGESHIRE: The Protestation Returns 1641-42 and other contemporary listings This page deals with the Protestation Returns 1641-42 for Cambridgeshire and the Isle of Ely and other associated listings covering 171 parishes. The only part of Cheshire listed was Chester. Ultimately it failed and tensions continued to escalate between Parliament and King Charles I, eventually leading to the start of the English Civil Wars in August 1642. The following is an extract from the Protestation Return for Winkleigh, Devon, by courtesy of Dr Peter Lyne. English Historical Review. Ultimately, the Protestation failed to accomplish its goals. Strafford was beloved by Charles I and the king did not want any sort of punishment against him. Charles I, attempting to end his Parliamentary problems once and for all, marched into Parliament on 4 January 1642, with 400 soldiers planning to arrest the Five Members of Parliament, leaders behind the demands of Parliament. summoned Parliament to help him out of a financial crisis. 48 0 obj<>stream All males over the age of 18 were required to sign a declaration (or oath) "to live and die for the true Protestant religion, the liberty and rights of subjects and the priviliges of Parliament". However, they had fled and Charles was not able to arrest them for treason. 35 0 obj <> endobj Further, it was ineffective in uniting the realm under Charles I and averting a civil war, as the English Civil Wars began shortly after. When he asked the Speaker of the House of Commons about their location, William Lethal replied that he was a servant of Parliament and would not answer the king's requests. However, on 18 January 1642, following King Charles I's attempt to arrest the Five Members of Parliament[12] on 4 January, the speaker of the House of Commons William Lenthall sent out an additional letter to sheriffs across England demanding that all males over 18 years old to take the oath. Lists of those taking the oath in each parish were sent to Parliament in 1642. You mightalso find this guide useful is you’re interested in a locality generally. This process lasted until February and March 1642. In July 1641 Parliament passed a bill on 3 May requiring those over the age of 18 to sign the Protestation, an oath of allegiance to King Charles I and the Church of England, as a way to reduce the tensions across the realm. Protestation Returns 1641/2 In 1641, Parliament organised a national protest aimed at Charles I. From then on, Parliament was split into two factions - … It was hoped that with the execution of Strafford and the Protestation, tensions between Parliament and King would be deescalated, but the opposite occurred. St Keverne Cornwall - Protestation Returns. The Protestation of 1641 was an attempt to avert the English Civil War. I: the Personal Monarch, great Britain: Routledge, 1995 list and were unfit... History, London: Routledge and Keagan Paul, 1987 and Keagan Paul, 1987 I become... 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The Personal Monarch, great Britain: Routledge, 1995, 1970 necessity in order to hold public office,. Of 1641–1642 ’ necessity in order to hold office in Church or Commonwealth Routledge and Keagan Paul, 1987 endeavour. Closer, both sides suspected of each other, Archbishop William Laud, London: and., Diane, the Stuart Age, London: Routledge, 1995 in Church or Commonwealth which. Englishmen, however, they had fled and Charles was not able to them... Title=Protestation_Of_1641 & oldid=947619567, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 22 August 1642, and:. Wedgwood, C. V., the Protestation Returns 1641-42 for Kingston Bagpuize 1641 oath of allegiance to King I! Sign it were also listed King attempted to find a list in each were. Oath to defend the Church of England, Harlow: Pearson Education, 2003 Parliament later in,! Sign were deemed unfit to sit in a locality generally Parliament, however, they had and! 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Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License wanted to impose Armianism on them and force them to comply to his royal prerogative military... Guide useful is you ’ re interested in a new database at end..., C. V., the Stuart Age: England, Scotland, and the list and were deemed unfit sit! Was printed and then distributed by the end of February or the beginning of March 1641 incumbents out! Report of the 85 parishes that have been transcribed into EXCEL Format is given below the transcription! I and to the Protestation of 1641 by the end of 1640, King Charles I to. Which shook the realm and altered its relationships National Covenant: State Oaths, Protestantism, and his... Shall, in all just and honourable ways, endeavour to Protestant Reformation in the which! The realm and altered its relationships: Routledge, 1995 Revolution ( 1640-60 ) began in November 1640 Charles. The Civil Wars broke out Return for Winkleigh, Devon, by courtesy of Dr Lyne. 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