The north was under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the Pope and the southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon Kings of Spain. The people of Naples, supported by the army, demanded a constitution on the model of Spain. He also saw an opportunity of not only completing the settlement of Naples but also adding the Papal lands to Italy. However, Garibaldi refused to accept any reward for his services and retired to his Island home Caprera. The NGC Census is an up-to-date population report showing the latest number of coins, tokens and medals graded by NGC for every type and grade. In the spring of 1860, The revolution broke out in Milan, the Viceroy ran away and the Austrian troops under Radetzky withdrew. According to A.J.P. The cordiality between Napoleon III and the people of Italy did not last long. The followers of Garibaldi who had fought in 1859 were stirred and were spoiling for fresh encounters. There was a popular cry for war. The possibility of the restoration of King Francis could not be ruled out because he was still holding out at Gaeta. The whole of Italy at that time was honeycombed with secret societies. There were a large number of secret societies working there. As he gazed over the unbroken surface of the sea, had he not in his mind’s eye seen beyond the eastern horizon those still enslaved shores.”. The restorations of 1815 were followed generally by reactionary or demoralising administrations. Before Cavour came on the scene of Italian politics, the boast of the Italian was “Italia fara de se” (Italy will act by itself). Certainly, Italy owed most to French armies and to British moral approval, but these could not have been effective without two other factors-Russian resentment against the Treaty of Paris, and Prussian resentment against the Austrian hegemony in Germany. Mobilization in Piedmont dislocated everything. To quote him, “We are prepared for anything except a liberal Pope. The situation in Italy was highly favourable to the national cause. A part of it was spent on the construction of rail-roads. At the most, Cavour could expect benevolent neutrality from Britain. Fourth phase of unification of Italy. offensive, Cavour ordered Sardinian troops into the Papal States and the Kingdom The north was under Austrian Habsburgs, the centre was ruled by the Pope and the southern regions were under the domination of the Bourbon Kings of Spain. He was a man of imagination, poetry, and audacity. He had a burning enthusiasm in his heart. The acquisition of Rome in 1870 was the final phase of the unification movement or Risorgimento. In the second week of August 1860, Garibaldi crossed the Strait and landed in Calabria. The great contribution of Mazzini lay in the fact that at a time when the people of Italy considered the liberation and unification of Italy as an impossible dream, he made the same a practical ideal. The process of unification of Italy: 1. In 1847, Garibaldi offered his services to the Pope who at that time was considered to be the hope of the Italian patriots who wanted unification of their country. There was a strong party that desired some form of autonomy King Francis II was planning to give reforms to his people to satisfy the sentiments of his people but before he had done that, Garibaldi, had landed in Sicily, Garibaldi was a great hero. The Risorgimento movement was at bottom a moral one. I found this man. On 11 May 1860, Garibaldi appeared off Massala on the west coast of Sicily and disembarked his troops. While in prison, he concluded that Italy should be unified. It was difficult to attack the Papal territory as the Pope was recognised as a part of the state system of Europe. The Pope was to be urged to introduce reforms in his stale. Lombardy was to be handed over to Napoleon III who was to transfer the same to Victor Emmanuel. Italian unification was possible only with foreign help. He even favoured the Liberals of Sardinia. There wasn't even a common form of the Italian language. During 1830s, Giuseppe Mazzini had tried to unite Italy. The Governor of Genoa told Mazzini’s father that his son was “gifted with some talent” but he was “to fond of walking by himself at night absorbed in thought. The unification of Italy was completed in 1870 when Napoleon III was forced to withdraw the French troops from Rome which was stationed there since 1849. It had 60,000 followers i… Italia irredenta (Unredeemed Italy) was an Italian nationalist opinion movement that emerged after Italian unification. The Unification of Italy. In the words of Phillips, “Italy as a nation is the legacy, the life-work of Cavour Others have been devoted to the national liberation, he knew how to bring it into the sphere of possibilities; he kept it pure of any factious spirit; he led it away from barren Utopias; kept it clear of reckless conspiracies; steered straight between rebels and reactions and gave it an organised force, a flag, a government and foreign allies.”, Another writer says, “If there had been no Cavour to win the confidence, sympathy and support of Europe, if he had not been recognised as one whose sense was just in all emergencies, Mazzini’s efforts would have run to waste unquestionable insurrections, and Garibaldi’s feat of arms must have added one chapter more to the history of unproductive patriotism.” The last words of Cavour at the time of his death were: “Italy is made, all is safe.” Cavour created “Italy of the Italians.”, According to Lord Palmerston, “Cavour left a name, ‘to point a moral and adorn a tale.” The moral was that a man of transcendent talent, indomitable industry, inextinguishable patriotism, could overcome difficulties which seemed insurmountable, and confer the greatest, the most inestimable benefits on his country. His exploits full of heroism, chivalry and romance moved the Italians to enthusiasm and admiration. He followed a liberal policy and it was felt that he might become the leader of the nationalist and democratic forces in the country. is speed really the only issue? However, Ferdinand I sent a secret message to the sovereigns assembled at Troppau informing them of his intention “to leave his kingdom and with the help of Austrian troops to resume absolute power.” In December 1820, he left for Laibach. He was inspired by Italian patriots and exiles to fight for Italian freedom. The Austrians would have fared better if they had remained on the defensive under cover of the fortresses of the “Quadrilateral”, but they decided to defend Milan. the Papal State before Cavour sent his troops to do so, would Cavour have been In 1859, he came out of his retirement and collected a large number of volunteers to fight against the Austrian’s. In 1848, he came back to Italy and placed his services at the disposal of Charles Albert of Sardinia who had declared war against Austria. Austria was not prepared to act alone as there was the danger of a revolt in Hungary. situation in Europe at the time. Britain was determined to avoid any involvement in a general war. He called this as his “first great sacrifice.”, He joined the Carbonari not because he approved of its methods but because it was at least a revolutionary organisation. It was under these circumstances that Victor Emmanuel entered the territory of Naples at the head of his army. Metternich sent the Austrian armies into Italy and the Papal States were occupied by the White coats. Italy completed the unification by acquiring Trento and Trieste, and gained a permanent seat in the League of Nations's executive council. That, too, is doubtful. 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